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5 posts tagged with "Thoughts"

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· 8 min read
Carl Liu

Definition of Liberal Arts: Liberal Arts is intended to provide chiefly general knowledge and to develop general intellectual capacities (such as reason and judgment) as opposed to professional or vocational skills.

Growing up in two different countries, China and Canada, I encountered a common trend: faculties were often divided into the Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Science. However, my experience working as an engineer at Presence, a pioneering AR tech startup, has taught me that what is often underestimated in the tech industry is the value of liberal arts education.

In some extreme cases, engineers believe that hard skills like coding are the only skills that matter, while liberal arts education is dismissed as irrelevant or impractical. However, I argue that this is a flawed perspective. In fact, liberal arts education can be just as valuable as hard skills for engineers working in the tech industry.

Limitation of Engineering Education

Throughout my academic and professional experience in the technology industry, I have come to recognize three major issues that are rarely discussed.

1. Fixed Reward Mechanism

In academia, technical interviews, and in the industry, the standards for evaluating and rewarding engineers are often fixed. Engineers tend to obsess over code cleanliness, optimization of memory and computation usage, and test coverage. While these standards may contribute to the development of better engineers, they may result in less creative problem-solvers overall. In fact, some experts in the field, like Dan Abramov, have highlighted how an obsession with clean code can be problematic. Although there is value in these standards, they prioritize certain skills over others, and consequently, limit engineers' capacity to be well-rounded creators.

Examples of these reward mechanisms include getting an A in a course because your exam answers were elegant, or landing a job offer because you wrote a perfect algorithm that solved a Hackerrank problem faster than anyone else. Additionally, building a better API product than Stripe does not necessarily mean that people will abandon Stripe and use your product.

2. Narrow Field of View

Engineers often have limited interaction with customers. Typically, they focus on writing code, allowing product managers and designers to define the features that need to be implemented. This can result in a bottom-up working model where engineers remain in the background. However, numerous thought-leaders, like Paul Graham and Clayton Christensen, have emphasized the importance of understanding and interacting with customers. In his essay "Do Things That Don't Scale", Paul Graham remarks that:

A lot of startup founders are trained as engineers, and customer service is not part of the training of engineers. You're supposed to build things that are robust and elegant, not be slavishly attentive to individual users like some kind of salesperson... They'd rather sit at home writing code than go out and talk to a bunch of strangers and probably be rejected by most of them. -- Paul Graham

3. Limitation of Experiments

Although science is rooted in experiments, many liberal arts subjects such as design, calligraphy, and music produce results that are not always unequivocal. In music, for example, different compositional genres (romanticism, atonality, jazz) will attract and repel different audiences. This subjectivity within certain fields means that experimentation produces more open-ended results.

Overall, recognizing these three limitations of engineering education can encourage engineers to develop broader skill sets so that they can become better communicators and creative thinkers.

Universal Understanding

The liberal arts were the continuation of Ancient Greek methods of enquiry that began with a "desire for a universal understanding." [1]

I am a strong believer in "Orthogonal Learning", an approach to gathering inputs as much diversity as possible in a learning process. In Computer Science, there is Problem Reduction, which is transforming one problem into another problem. There are many examples of studies in other industries that have helped to explain and solve computer problems:

  • For people familiar with Unity or video game development, the quaternion is a common technique for object rotation used in character movement. I was not aware of this terminology but it is no stranger to folks who studied Physics or Aerospace engineering.
Quaternion (Physics and Aerospace)Leg rotation (Unity)
  • Donald Knuth used a lot of real-life problems to describe algorithms problems in his book "The Art of Computer Programming", the example of using train track design to explain dequeue data structure is fascinating:
Track Design (Civil Engineering)Dequeue (Computer Data Structure)
  • And as a music minor student, composing with chord progression is simply building up a finite state automata:
Chord Progress (Music)Finite-State Automata (Computer Science)

· 2 min read
Carl Liu

This is an ongoing blog...


  • Humans unite when there is a common enemy
  • Core values and organization cultures can increase productivity of a team
  • When people are not confident, they tend to use the bigger identity to hide themselves:
    • I work for a big corp
    • I am from a developed city xxx/country xxx/continent xxx
    • I went to xxx University

About Ego

Understanding that our identity is not fixed but is rather a collection of ideas and interpretations about who we are can give us the capacity to, when necessary, think critically about what our ego is telling us particularly when the instinct is there to preserve our identity, or ego, at all costs. The ego has gotten a lot of bad rap, but the truth is that the ego is neither negative nor positive. It is merely a sense of self that allows us to operate and function in the world, giving us an idea of who we are and where we belong. The ego is only problematic when it takes control over us rather than our true selves being in control, and when the things it tells us to do or how it is interpreting events becomes damaging to us and/or others.


· 2 min read
Carl Liu

Definition of Goals

  • Subjective vs Objective
  • Goals can be gamed by blurring its measure of success:
    • ❌Wrong: I made a good product because I think people will like it
    • ✔️Correct:
      • Physical Fact: Humans landed on the moon
      • Economic Fact: People like to pay millions of dollars for a software license per year

First Principal thinking

  • Get to the fundamentals than learning the buzz words
    • ❌Wrong: Learning definitions of Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, Metaverse...
    • ✔️Correct: Understanding FSM "finite state machine", Turning Completeness, Gödel's incomplete theorem... (This is why getting a degree in Business is so less valuable than getting a degree in Engineering. If I give you a book that has the same business strategy as Airbnb, you probably won't build another Airbnb; Whereas, if I give you a snippet of code, whether its 0 or 1, you can justify it in hours)

· 6 min read

At the end of 2021, I decided to relocate back to China due to both family and personal reasons. Extended WFH was a huge one: I was losing a ton of passion and efficiency. After evaluating a few opportunities, I decided to join Airbnb, and work out of their Beijing office!

· 5 min read

I was talking to my friend who does meditation on a routine the other day. I have always wondered why someone enjoys spending the time to meditate. His theory is that the idea of meditation is to focus on living experience because not everyone is experiencing living. He gave me a few examples:

  • When you are enjoying an extremely fancy dinner that costs you 300$, but you know that you are having a technical interview tomorrow morning, you have to go back and sleep early. Are you enjoying the dinner, and tasting every single spice in your food?
  • When you are drinking an amazing espresso shot, and someone is knocking on the door which draws your attention away from the espresso. Are you tasting the coffee?
  • You can stay in the library for 12 hours and chatting with friends on Facebook. Does that count as studying if your library experience is not studying?