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· 7 min read
Carl Liu

Definition of Liberal Arts: Liberal Arts is intended to provide chiefly general knowledge and to develop general intellectual capacities (such as reason and judgment) as opposed to professional or vocational skills.

I grew up in China and Canada, for both countries, there is a tendency to divide faculties into the Faculty of Arts and Faculty of Science. Having worked at Presence, our pioneering AR tech startup, for a year, I realized that liberal arts education is underestimated in the Tech industry. In extreme cases, some engineers even think they should only focus on hard skills like coding, liberal arts is either unrelated or impractical. This blog explains why liberal arts is important to engineers.

Limitation of Engineering Education

In my studying and working experience in the Tech industry, I found there are three major problems that people rarely discuss:

1. Fixed Reward Mechanism

In education, tech interviews, and working as software engineer, the standards for evaluating and rewarding are fixed. Engineers are obsessed with clean code, less memory and computation usage, and test coverage... These standards are questionable, for instance, Dan Abramov once blogged about how obsession with clean code is troublesome. These reward mechanisms might train better engineers but less well-rounded creators in my opinion:

  • If my answers on the exam are elegant, I can ace the course.
  • If I write a perfect algorithm that solves the Hackerrank problem faster than everyone else, in both Time and Space, then I will get a job offer.
  • If we build a better API product than Stripe, people should ditch Stripe and just use ours.

2. Narrow Field of View

Engineers rarely talk to the customer, they simply write code (Well, great companies like Tableau bring their engineers to Las Vegas every year to meet customers at conferences, but in most Tech companies, engineers are only responsible to implement the features defined by their product manager and designers). Once getting used to this bottom-up working model, engineers become backstage runners. However, many influencers such as Paul Graham and Clayton Christensen highlighted the importance of understanding customers in their writing, here is a good quote from Paul in his "Do things don't scale":

A lot of startup founders are trained as engineers, and customer service is not part of the training of engineers. You're supposed to build things that are robust and elegant, not be slavishly attentive to individual users like some kind of salesperson... They'd rather sit at home writing code than go out and talk to a bunch of strangers and probably be rejected by most of them. -- Paul Graham

3. Limitation of Experiments

Science is based on experiments, but in a lot of liberal arts subjects, “experiments” rarely produce unequivocal answers: Design, Calligraphy, Music, etc. For people who study Music, for instance, it is intuitive that a particular compositional genre — be it romanticism, atonality, or jazz — will attract some while repulsing others.

Universal Understanding

The liberal arts were the continuation of Ancient Greek methods of enquiry that began with a "desire for a universal understanding." [1]

I am a strong believer in "Orthogonal Learning", an approach to gathering inputs as much diversity as possible in a learning process. In Computer Science, there is Problem Reduction, which is transforming one problem into another problem. There are many examples of studies in other industries that have helped to explain and solve computer problems:

  • For people familiar with Unity or video game development, the quaternion is a common technique for object rotation used in character movement. I was not aware of this terminology but it is no stranger to folks who studied Physics or Aerospace engineering.
Quaternion (Physics and Aerospace)Leg rotation (Unity)
  • Donald Knuth used a lot of real-life problems to describe algorithms problems in his book "The Art of Computer Programming", the example of using train track design to explain dequeue data structure is fascinating:
Track Design (Civil Engineering)Dequeue (Computer Data Structure)
  • And as a music minor student, composing with chord progression is simply building up a finite state automata:
Chord Progress (Music)Finite-State Automata (Computer Science)

· 2 min read
Carl Liu

This is an ongoing blog...


  • Humans unite when there is a common enemy
  • Core values and organization cultures can increase productivity of a team
  • When people are not confident, they tend to use the bigger identity to hide themselves:
    • I work for a big corp
    • I am from a developed city xxx/country xxx/continent xxx
    • I went to xxx University

About Ego

Understanding that our identity is not fixed but is rather a collection of ideas and interpretations about who we are can give us the capacity to, when necessary, think critically about what our ego is telling us particularly when the instinct is there to preserve our identity, or ego, at all costs. The ego has gotten a lot of bad rap, but the truth is that the ego is neither negative nor positive. It is merely a sense of self that allows us to operate and function in the world, giving us an idea of who we are and where we belong. The ego is only problematic when it takes control over us rather than our true selves being in control, and when the things it tells us to do or how it is interpreting events becomes damaging to us and/or others.


· 5 min read
Carl Liu

For the past year, I have met a lot of entrepreneurs and engineers. I found a common pattern: these knowledgable people not only read more than me but are very smart in choosing the right information to read and digest.

In terms of intelligence, everyone is similar. What matters more is whether a person wants to learn/read and from which source the person learns (the information input). Just like what people always say in the gym -- 'You Are What You Eat', this applies to information and learning.

Information Hygiene 👩🏻‍⚕️

The first thing to practice is to identify the quality of information. For the modern era, a lot of online media sites and content creators tend to tune their content to maximize the impression rate or view count (if you want to learn how to write news to catch eyeballs 👁 here is a link) a better term to describe the quality of information is Information Hygiene

The following chart is my understanding of information distribution:

· 6 min read
Carl Liu

Carl: Max had an introduction tutorial session for the full stack engineers, It was really educative. Writing down this note for sharing.

Basic concepts

Mobile Linking and Mesaurement Platform

To place ads on various platforms, we need a complete system to link and measure the performance of omni-channel media advertisement campaign. Commonly used linking and mesaurement platforms are (paid) and Kochava (free). The general idea is to configure the callback URL of each advertisement delivery platform on the mobile linking platform, and at the same time embed the SDK of the mobile linking platform in the App. The platforms collect data and calculate the attribution.

· 2 min read
Carl Liu

This is an introduction blog to some knowledge (basic) and vocabs I have learnt at Presence.

App's Skill Radar

  • For any Mobile/Web/Internet startup, you need to know your advantages and disadvantages just so you don't get lured down a blind alley.
  • This is appliable not only to Mobile Apps, but also to any modern startups (i.e. Website for delivery call, aka. Doordash/Palo Altos Delivery)


  • Cost Per Install:
    • Web: 0$
  • Top tier compnay examples
    • Any web era startups: Google, Yahoo, Portal sites


  • How fast does the product spread, is it exponential or linear?
  • Top tier compnay examples
    • Uber, UberEats

Screen Time

  • How long does your user spend on your app
  • Top tier company examples
    • Tiktok -> 100 Mins
    • FB -> 45 Mins
    • Bytedance Toutiao -> 75 Mins

· 2 min read
Carl Liu

Definition of Goals

  • Subjective vs Objective
  • Goals can be gamed by blurring its measure of success:
    • ❌Wrong: I made a good product because I think people will like it
    • ✔️Correct:
      • Physical Fact: Humans landed on the moon
      • Economic Fact: People like to pay millions of dollars for a software license per year

First Principal thinking

  • Get to the fundamentals than learning the buzz words
    • ❌Wrong: Learning definitions of Cloud, SaaS, PaaS, Metaverse...
    • ✔️Correct: Understanding FSM "finite state machine", Turning Completeness, Gödel's incomplete theorem... (This is why getting a degree in Business is so less valuable than getting a degree in Engineering. If I give you a book that has the same business strategy as Airbnb, you probably won't build another Airbnb; Whereas, if I give you a snippet of code, whether its 0 or 1, you can justify it in hours)

· 6 min read

At the end of 2021, I decided to relocate back to China due to both family and personal reasons. Extended WFH was a huge one: I was losing a ton of passion and efficiency. After evaluating a few opportunities, I decided to join Airbnb, and work out of their Beijing office!